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Does the age of conception? Pregnancy and age. Questions and answers.

How age affects fertility? What is the best age for pregnancy? What is more important - the age of the woman or the man? Does the age at the chances of getting pregnant: Is it possible to get pregnant after 35 years and what are the chances after 40?
And many more questions ...

Pregnancy and age. Does the age of conception?
In every woman's ovaries contain 1 to 2 million oocytes formed follicles. They are there from birth. With each cycle, one or more eggs from this huge stock of mature and become ready for insemination.
By the time of the first cycle of the stock of oocytes dwindles to 300 thousand. If we assume that a woman ovulation occurs about 500 aged between 12 and 52 years, and imagine that not all of these eggs will be healthier, we still have a limited number of viable eggs capable of fertilization. This maturation of eggs are not the same in different periods of a woman's life. Therefore, the fact that the age influences the conception, no longer requires proof.

How much interrelated pregnancy and age of the woman? What is the best age for pregnancy? Can I get pregnant after 35 years and what are the chances of a woman to conceive a healthy child at every stage of life? What is important is whether the age of the man for conception?
This article - an attempt to provide answers to these and other questions.


Consider the features, with which is associated the process of conception for women of all ages.

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"Three-person" in vitro fertilization (IVF) - a new method of treatment is still in the research stage in laboratories in Britain and the United States

Historical event happened: the British House of Commons (United Kingdom's House of Commons) voted in favor of the legalization of the method of gene therapy, which allows women to avoid the transmission of genetic defects in mitochondrial DNA of children.
It is expected that decision, supported by 382 members of parliament, against 128, to make the UK the first country in the world, which approved the transfer of DNA from the egg sick woman in a healthy ovum in clinical practice. The decision of the British could be a turning point for the approval of the substitution method mitochondria and in other countries.

Mitochondrial treatment is known as the "three-parent" (three-person) in vitro fertilization (IVF), which was so named because the children born from genetically modified embryos get DNA from the mother and father, as well as the female donor.

Substitution method of mitochondria, or "three-parent" (three-person) in vitro fertilization (IVF), is aimed at preventing the transmission of pathogenic woman (developmental disorders) mutations of mitochondrial DNA children. It is estimated that 1 in 5 thousand. Children born with diseases caused by these mutations, usually affects the energy-tissue and organs such as the brain, heart and muscles. All mitochondrial diseases are inherited from the mother, but some women are carriers of mutations, without showing any symptoms of the disease.

" Great news for patients with mitochondrial diseases. The method gives them real hope, and it's great! ", – Turnbull says Doug (Doug Turnbull), a neurologist at the University of Newcastle (Newcastle University, UK), one of the leading supporters of the introduction of the method of mitochondrial substitution in clinical practice.

However, as long as people can not ask for mitochondrial replacement procedure. Decision made by February 3, 2015 the British House of Commons, will be put to a vote of the House of Lords (House of Lords), although it is expected that it will be supported. However, even after the House of Lords to support the new law will not take effect until October. Moreover, clinics wishing to offer this treatment must be approved by the British regulatory body - the Organisation for Human Reproduction and Embryology (Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority, HFEA). Probably before giving the "green light», HFEA want to wait additional evidence that the procedure is safe, and may expose to scrutiny the new method in each case.

Turnbull hopes to eventually offer the procedure to patients of his clinic, but notes that it will depend on licensing HFEA.

" I was with some patients during a debate in the House of Commons. When voting took place, there was a cheer " - the doctor said, -" It is for the sake of the people engaged in research, is not it? "


Transfer method

Previously, researchers believed that only a small group of women who may request the procedure of replacing the mitochondria. However, in a letter dated January 28, published in the New England Journal of Medicine [1], it is reported that, according to the researchers of the University of Newcastle, the procedure could help more than 2 thousand. Women who are carriers of pathogenic mitochondrial mutations.

The vote, which took place in the UK, was the culmination of a decade of attempts of some researchers, lawyers and investors to change the law, which prohibits the substitution of mitochondria. At the beginning of the 2000s. Researchers from Newcastle began experimenting with the method of pronuclear transfer, during which the nuclear DNA of a fertilized egg of a woman is transferred into another fertilized egg from which it was removed previously pronuclei. Similar methods have been developed and outside the UK. However, these methods have been approved only for research purposes, and British law explicitly prohibits their use in human reproduction.

Ethical questions

A number of scientific, ethical, and public consultation in 2011, raised several major obstacles to approval procedures mitochondrial replacement, and in 2014 led by British Conservative coalition government announced that it would seek the approval procedure by Parliament that made inevitable the current vote.

Supporters of the change in the law, including Nobel Prize winners, senior officers and directors of leading research funds have captivated British Open letter and signed a declaration calling on Parliament to take action. The opposition, which included members of the clergy of the Anglican and Catholic churches, advocacy groups and some researchers have been less coordinated, though no less loud.

Supporters of mitochondrial substitution in other countries say that this vote could be a turning point and contribute to the subsequent approval of the method around the world. Office of the Food and Drug Administration (US Food and Drug Administration, FDA) currently prohibits such procedures, however, at the last meeting in 2014 were reviewed scientific evidence of the need to change the ban. The Institute of Medicine (Institute of Medicine, USA), serves as the advisor of the US government, plans to release a report on the ethics of mitochondrial replacement procedures.

British vote seems necessary harbinger that something has changed in Australia, says David Thorburn (David Thorburn), a geneticist at the University of Melbourne (University of Melbourne, Australia).

Defects in mitochondria (pictured mitochondria intestinal epithelial cells) are associated with certain diseases, occurring in about 1 in 5,000 children. (Photo: P. Motta & T. Naguro / SPL)

According to the materials Nature.com

At what age is best to conceive a child?

The successful birth of the child and his future health depends on many factors, not the least of which is the age of the parents.

Plays the role of age as a future mother and father's age; However, for men and women question when to have children, is somewhat different.

In general, the reproductive ability of men is not particularly limited timeframe. There are cases when men become fathers and 60 and 80 years. This is due to genetic causes, and, and health, and lifestyle.

If the body is able to produce future father healthy, fit for fertilization by sperm, the decision on when to conceive a child, depends on the willingness of men.

But keep in mind that with age, along with general changes in the health status of men, the quality of genetic material may also change, and not for the better. It is known that parents "aged" much higher risk of having a child suffering from any congenital abnormalities (Down's syndrome and so on.).

Men aged 45 years and older should consider this risk when planning when to conceive a child. The girl, however, is considered to conceive a more favorable than the boy. A number of studies show that girls are less affected by negative factors at conception parents the older age group.

For women period boundary when to conceive a child, differ from those of men. Successful conception depends on the ovarian reserve expectant mother - that is, the ability of the body to produce its mature eggs.

That is, in fact, successful fertilization can take place as soon as a girl's menstrual cycle was established - from 15-16, and even 13 years.

However, bear and give birth to a child at such a young age is extremely heavy load - as physical and psychological. The optimal age to conceive a child, a woman is between 20 to 35 years. During this period, a woman's body is at the peak of their reproductive capabilities.

With age, a woman's body undergoes certain changes. Hormonal changes, increased risk of pathologies of various organs and systems. Therefore, to conceive a child for women aged 35 years and older is a task that involves a number of difficulties.

Before planning pregnant women in this age group should undergo a comprehensive examination.

Of course, special attention needs assessment of the reproductive system: the presence of high-grade, capable of fertilization of oocytes adequate state of endometrial cancer and more. You should also take into account the overall health of the expectant mother.

Couples "aged", planning to conceive a child, necessarily requires consultation genetics - to identify the likelihood of hereditary diseases. Also, if conception is produced by IVF may examination and identify the best embryos using PGD (preimplantation genetic diagnosis).

PROBIRKA.ORG

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